KAKTUSY 1991

Vol. 27

No 1
No 1
No 2
No 2

No 3
No 3
No 4
No 4

No 5
No 5
No 6
No 6

Summary in English
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No 1

Echinocereus morricalii (J. Říha, p. 3) - The author discusses the taxonomic position of some Echinocereus taxa from the inland mountain ridges of Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico. In his opinion, Echinocereus stramineus is confined only to high-level plains of Chihuahua desert, E. viereckii (including E. parkeri with its varieties) occurs at higher altitudes of mountain ridges of Sierra Madre Oriental. By contrast, E. mor ricalii grows much farther east in the forest area at lower altitudes.

Coryphantha sulcata (V. Šedivý, p. 4) - The botanical history of C. sulcata is described. The author gives its characteristics, distribution pattern, relationships and taxonomic concept as currently accepted. Problems of typification of the generic name Coryphantha are elucidated considering the fact that C. sulcata is in sequence the third type species of the genus.

New Mammillaria from the state Jalisco, Mexico: M. perezdelarosae (J. Říha, p. 8) - The article deals with newly described cactus growing in pine woods on stones, scress and outcrops which it shares with mosses and small grasses. It was discovered by Klein, Lassen and Moller near Cuarento, Jalisco, later revisited and then described by the research workers of the University of Mexico H. Bravo and L. Scheinvar. M. perezdelarosae is closely related to M. bombycina; however, some plant populations appear intermediate between the two species.

When the macrogonus is in bloom... (L. Mitiska, J. Gratias, p. 9) - The authors reveal the beauty of Cereus macrogonus, cactus usually grown as stock for grafting of cristate cacti.

Mammillaria spec. CZ 124 (J. Chvastek, J. Žwak, p. 10) - The authors present a plant found by them near Doctor Arroyo in the Mexican state Nuevo Leon. Morphological characters of the plants correspond well with the description of Mammillaria arroyensis Reppenhagen. They describe the properties of the habitat and accordigly recommend the conditions for cultivation.

Pachyphytum oviferum (L. Mitiska, p.18) - A brief introduction of the species and hints for cultivation.

Cotyledon dinteri (J. Gratias, p. 17) - C. dinteri is briefly introduced and compared with the related C. cacaloides.

Visits to two remarkable collections in the town Písek (J. Gratias, p. 19)

Cleistocactus brookei (J. Říha, p. 22) - The paper discloses the difficulties of the classification within the genus Cleistocactus. The vast distribution area of C. brookei-complex, no shorter than 1500 km. Enabled the rise of many varied populations of this complex. The plants belonging to this group are in collections usually labelled by field numbers and it is very uneasy for professional botanists to name them. A specimen of this unclear complex of C. brookei is seen on the color photograph.

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No 2

Neoporteria multicolor (p. 27) - Brief description, distinctive features and native distribution of the species are given. Hints for cultivation are also provided.

The Myriostigmas of San Antonio (p. 29) - Variation of Astrophytum myriostigma is dealt with. During evolution three form-groups have been selected in this species. They were identified as forms "Potosinum", "Columnare" and "Jaumave". Within the Jaumave complex a new population has evolved at the eastern edge of the valley near San Antonio. These plants show a strong tendency to reduction of woolly flakes. The proportion of four-ribbed specimens among them is smaller than among their closest relatives near the town of Jaumave, they have especially strongly spined seedlings and adults vary greotly in their form.

Uebelmannia pectinifera (p. 35) - J. Říha reports in his experience with a cactus not easy to cultivate. After several years of cultivation, his plants (12 cm in diam.) have not come into bloom yet. The success achieved by J. Bouma in cultivation of U. pectinifera is appreciated (see the next paper of this issue).

On the cultivation of Uebelmannia pectinifera (p. 36) - The author describes his cultivation experiments with imported plants of Uebelmannia pectinifera. He received a few mature plants ten years ago; the flowers did not appear until 7 years of acclimatization. The plants produced seeds with 20 percent germination.

Is Parodia a genus full of problems? (p. 37) - J. Říha discusses the causes leadinng to the hasty descriptions of species or varieties within Parodia. In his opinion, some of the descriptions which appeared in recent years are not justifiable. They are often based on selected plant samples sent by collectors to Europe for sale, then re-sorted and distributed as commodity. Such plant strains ought not to serve as a material to be described as it cannot cover the broad variation of taxa. An example is Parodia tuberculata from the surroundings of Sucre, Bolivia. Its yellow-, orange- or red-flowered plants led to the description of many "taxa".

Notes on the Neolloydia conoidea-complex (p. 39) - The authors visited northern part of Mexico and observed a number of ecotypes of N. conoidea there. They are of the opinion that the number of central and radial spines depends chiefly on the age of plants and altitude of the habitats.

Stapelia nobilis (p. 42) - Two large-flowered stapelias - Stapelia gigantea and S. nobilis - which are often mistaken for each other are compared. The experience with cultivation is summed up both from the historical sources and from the present Czech literature.

What is a "grower's error" (p. 43) - The paper deals with the main errors in cultivation of cacti.

A visit to the collection of L. Horáček, Písková Lhota near Mladá Boleslav (p. 45)

From the literature abroad (p. 46)

The trip for cacti (p. 47) - J. Sladkovský described a three-day trip with p. Pavlíček to the surroundings of White City and Marathon, southern Texas. Their cactus and other plant findings are commented on.

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No 3

Sclerocactus parviflorus Clover et Jotter alias S. terrae-canyone Heil (J. Bušek, p. 51) - S. parviflorus, the most common and well known winter hard cactus from Utah and adjacent areas of Colorado and New Mexico, was renamed several times. Throughout its vast distribution area the plants vary in the number and colouring of hooked central spines as well as in flower colour. These variants are taxonomically insignificant, even though they were described as separate taxa (S. parviflorus var. roseus, S. blessingiae) J. Busek observed the variation of S. parviflorus along the road no 95 between Blanding and Hanksville in Utah. Near Blanding a red-flowered S. parviflorus occurs, about 100 km further in the Natural Bridges National Park a yellow-flowered one was found. The latter was described earlier as a separate species S. terrae-canyone. When proceeding along the road, the colour of plants successively changes from yellow to white, then to yellow and red again. Near the lake Mead at a lower altitudes columnar plants (up to 30 cm high) were found having long distorted central spines. These were earlier described as S. contortus. All these names have to be fully synonymized whit S. parviflorus. J. Busek draws attention to an interesting sclerocactus found by himself by the road no 24 near Torrey. The plants resemble S. polyancistrus by their straw-yellow spines, central spine 7 cm long and greenish yellow flowers.
In cultivation the plants cope badly with humid conditions of our greenhouses. S. parviflorus is an easy species to grow; provided it is cultivated in a greenhouse with good ventilation and kept totally dry during winter, it can tolerate temperature below zero. The raising from seeds is, unfortunately, disadvantageous: only 2-3 percent of seeds germinate.

Echinocereus enneacanthus Engelm. and allied plants (J. Chvastek, p. 52) - The author presents various plants of E. enneacanthus-complex on photographs taken by himself in Mexico. The plants are compared with those described in literature. The author concludes that the broad, though simplifying, species concept proposed by N. P. Taylor is the most convenient.

Ceropegia cimiciodora Oberm. (J. Gratias and L. Mitiska, p. 56) - A survey of accessible information on a pair of related species - C. cimiciodora and C. stapeliiformis. Cultivation experience of this lianes with succulent stem is given.

Denmoza rhodacantha (SD.) Br. et R. (R. Slaba, p. 58) - Denmoza is a genus represented only by one species. The plants described as Pilocereus erythrocephalus and later transferred to Denmoza has sometimes, for instance by Backeberg, been considered as another species of the genus. D. rhodacantha changes considerably in the habit with age. The description of D. rhodacantha refers to young plants raving ten strong spines in areoles. Old plants of the same species with multiple number of strong spines and sometimes with thin, 6 cm long bristly spines correspond to the description of D. erythrosepala. D. rhodacantha is a fairly slowly-grower, but requires no special condition in cultivation. First flowers appear, however, at plants of very unequal age and size. R. Slaba grows 30 years old plants 25 cm high together with much younger ones only 10 cm high. Unlike the younger plants the older ones have so far produced no flowers.

Islaya copiapoides Rauh et Backeb. (J. Baborák, p. 61) - The cacti of the Peruvian deserts always present some problems in cultivation. I. copiapoides is one of the cacti host difficult to cultivate. Mature plants imported from the native habitats usually did not take roots. Yet they flowered and even produced viable seeds, but they did not survive more than 3-4 years. The best results were obtained with plants raised from seeds and timely grafted onto Selenicereus sp. Such grafted seedlings have been successfully cultivated for years.

Mexico bonito (L. Horáček and R. Chalupský, p. 63) - The authors relate their experience while plant-hunting in Hidalgo, Mexico.

How often the cacti should be repotted? (J. Říha, p. 65) - The author discusses the composition and structure of compost for cacti and recommends not too frequent repotting.

Our visit to two remarkable collections of L. Červinka and Z. Červinka at Čelákovice near Prague (J. Gratias, p. 67)

25th anniversary of the organized cacti-growing in Přerov, northern Moravia (M. Pavlín, p. 69)

An acquaintance with Euphorbia neohumbertii P. Boit. (J. Říha, p. 71) - Basic information on cultivation and propagation of this allogamous succulent euphorbia is provided.

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No 4

Mammillaria laui (Jan Říha, p. 75) - M. laui was discovered in 1976 in the gorge of Rio Guajalejo, Tamaulipas by Mr. Lau and Reppenhagen while they search for M. carmenae. The history of the found is accesible in the literature. Later, 1979 was this taxon described and 3 forms were separated, the one of them is on the cower picture. Authors (Šubík and Říha) were several times visiting the locality, quiet and attractive land. In late eighties another form of M. laui was collected on the steep slopes, on the sneer rocks in crevices. That form has long white bristly spines, clusters freely but the flowers are almost identical with other forms (field No Lau 1498).

Gymnocalycium, subg. Pirisemineum (I. Milt, p. 76) - Based on the seed morphology, subg. Pirisemineum was delimited (Till and Hesse 1985) with the following species: Gymnocalycium chuquisacanum, G. comarapense, G. izozogsii, G. lagunillasense, G. marquezii, G. millaresii, G. pflanzii, G. pflanzii subsp. argentinense, G. riograndense, and G. zegarrae. In the first part of a series, G. pflan-zii and G. zegarrae are discussed. Their botanical history, infraspecific variation, distribution, cultivation are dealt with in more detail and other valuable information is provided. Continued in the next issue.

Mammillaria sempervivi DC. (J. Klikar, p. 81) - This popular and easy to cultivate cactus from the Mexican state Hidalgo is dealt with. Its extensive variation is briefly di-scussed concluding that var. caput-medusae and var. tetracantha; often mentioned in literature and sometimes offered in seed lists, should be fully synonymized with the type variety.

Thelocephala malleolata (Ritt.), Ritt. (R. Slaba, p. 83) - Diminutive subterrestrial cactus, distribu-ted in scattered refuges at the southern margin of the Atacama desert. It belongs to a distinctive group of plants containing about 15 species, sometimes included into Neochilenia (Neoporteria) and named already by A. V. Frič as Chileorebutia. The first valid generic name for the group is, however, Thelocephala Y. Ito 1957. T. ma1leolata occurs in the seaside landscape north and south (var. solitaria) of Chaniaral, Cultivation in mineral compost and la-vish watering at long intervals is necessary for successful growing. Its grafting on short cuttings of Cereus peruvianus or Eriocereus jusbertii should be recommended.

Sarcocaulon multifidum (J. Matis, p. 85) - Small, only a few contimentes high plant with succulent stem and root. The genus Sarcocaulon, closely related to Pelargonium, with its 14 hitherto known species, is confined to South Africa. The behaviour of these plants in cultivation at our latitudes is somewhat inscrutable. Their vegetation time is irregular and quite independent in any season of the year. In some years. Sarcocaulons do not start growing at all and it is not easy to discern whether the plant, when not in flower, is dead or still alive. Propagation is by cuttings (rooted ripe branches). Seeds germinate well in the damp.

Mexico bonito (L. Horáček and R. Chalupský, p. 87) - Second continuation of a series on the trip to Mexico.

In the kingdom of Uebelmannias (S. Stuchlík, p. 89) - S. Stuchlík reports on his visit to the collection of W. Uebelmann at Mutschellen near Zürich. The well-known expert in cacti, traveller and collector pays attention mainly to the genus Uebelmannia, in recent years also to Notocactus. The overwhelming majority of cacti in his collection originate from the expeditions of L. Horst and W. Uebelmann.

The trip for cacti to California (P. Pavlíček, p. 93) - An attractive narration on the hunting for cacti during the trip through California.

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No 5

Sulcorebutia oenantha W. Rausch (J. Říha, p. 99) - This species was discovered twenty years ago but only a few plants from the Rausch's original collection survived in cultivation to the present time. The species, fortuna- tely, occurs in the broader vicinity of the type locality (the town Totora, prov. Carrasco) - S. oenantha is a species without central spines, but, near the village Epizana, the plants were found with distinct ones. The plant seen on the photograph (HS 103) has been cultivated for six years not having central spines until August 1991. Its central spines are now 12 mm long. J. Říha recommends to grow this handsome plant. For rich blooming S. oenantha needs cold wintering, it otherwise has no special watering or compost requirements. Grafting is by no means necessary, but possible.

Gymnocalycium, subg. Pirisemineum, Part 2 (I. Milt, p. 99) - The closing part of the paper includes Gymnocalycium lagunillasense, G. riograndense, G. marquezii, G. millaresii, G. izo- zogsii and G. chuquisacanum. At the end the author tries to elucidate some misidentifications of plants, confused cases or incorrect information spreading through the literature often from the time of the plant collection or description. The table of main distinguishing characters between the species (colour of the body, number of ribs, coloration of spines, flowers and fruits) is added.

Rebutia senilis subsp. chrysacantha (Backb.) Don. f. kesselringiana (Bew.) Buin. et Don. (R. Slaba, p. 106) - This well-know and widely grown plant is known under several names, usually as a variety of R. senilis. As "kesselringiana" is more closely related to "chrysacantha" than to "senilis", the best solution seems to name it as given in the title. Like most Rebutias it is a trouble-free plant which is tough and undemanding. It requires spare watering in hot summer and dry and cold conditions in winter. Their propagating both by seed and offsprings is easy, the flowers are self-fertilizing and the seedlings can flower at the early age of 2-3 years. The plant on the photograph is about 30 years old.

The reminiscences of Mexico, Tamaulipas Jaumave, 1990 (J. Perůtka, p. 107) - The author describes one-day trip for cacti to the southern vicinity of Jaumave. From among plants observed may be mentioned Tillandsia recurvata, Dioon edule, Mammillaria candida, M. applanata, M. klissingiana, Gymnocactus viereckii and Astrophytum myriostigma.

The gem of the succulent kingdom: Aloe rauhii Reyn. (J. Gratias, p. 111) - Aloe rauhii is one of the most attractive spe- cies of the genus originating from the northwest of Madagascar. Its seedlings bloom as early as at the age of 12 months and then repeatedly in whichever season of the year. The plants are self-fertilizing; the propagation is easy by seed or offsprings. The lowest temperature for their safe wintering is 10 °C.

Mexico bonito, Part 3 (L. Horáček and R. Chalupský, p. 112) - This is a continuation of a series dealing with the field trip to the surrounding of Tula and Jaumave.

J. Žwak - fifty years old (J. Chvastek, p. 116) - A visit to the greenhouses of the cacti- gro wing personality in Frýdek-Místek, North Moravia, at the occasion of his fifty birthday anniversary.

Book review: Kiesling Roberto: Cactus de la Patagonia, Buenos Aires 1990 (J. Říha, p. 117)

From the literature abroad: Kakteen und andere Sukkulenten, Vol. 41, 1990 (S. Virt, p, 118)

Echinocereus chloranthus var. russanthus (Weniger) Lamb ex Rowley (J. Říha, p. 119) - The author discusses the relations of Echinocereus chloranthus and E. viridiflorus. The flower colour of E. chloranthus, as the species name implies, is green. By contrast, the name of its variety implies red (russanth) colour of flowers. However, in northern Mexico red flowered plants prevail over the type green flowered variety. In addition, E. chloranthus is sometimes included into E. viridiflorus with which occupies a continuous distribution area with populations of plants of intermediate habit. E. chloranthus is limited to the Chihuahua Desert in Mexico and the southernmost USA contrary to E. viridiflorus which occurs in grassy plains and mountain forests in the Middle West of the USA.

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No 6

Soehrensia, Lobivia or Echinopsis (M. Pavlín, p. 124) - The author discusses the history of the genus Soehrensia and the species belonging to it. The intermediate position of Soehrensia between Echinopsis and Lobivia enables some speculations. The author is of the opinion that generic status of Soehrensia is justifiable. The cultivation of Soehrensia-species is not difficult, raising from seeds is easy though the seedlings grow slowly. Grafting is not recommended.

Brachychiton Schott et Endl. - a genus of "bottle" trees (J. Tomandlová and A. Tomandl, p. 127) - Brachychiton (Sterculiaceae) is a representative of Australian succulent flora containing there 11 species. They are able to store several dozens of hectolitres of water in their bottle-shaped, 3,5 m in diameter and up to 25 m high, succulent trunks. In their native country, Queensland, owing to the water storage, they can survive a long, quite dry period and resist to recurrent fires. With regard to uneven dormancy of seeds, the authors developed a sophisticated method of sowing seeds and describe the growing of majority of Brachychitonspecies from seeds to one year old seed- lings. The young plants are suitable for cactus glasshouses.

Short notes on one Mammillaria (J. Perůtka, p. 130) - Mammillaria klissingiana was described by Bödeker from Calebazas situated north of Jaumave, Tamaulipas. J. Perůtka visited Jaumave in 1990 and near the town he found M. klissingiana on stony, limestone terraces. On the basis of his own observation he gives some supplementary data on this species.

Mammillaria heyderi Mühlenpfordt and its varieties (J. Chvastek, p. 131) - The experience from habitats of M. heyderi agg. in the Mexican states Nuevo Leon and Coahuila is given. J. Chvastek collected in 1987 in N. Mexico some unriped fruits of M. heyderi, notwithstanding the seed germinated well yet in 1991. Basic information on this species is given and hints for cultivation are provided.

Tephrocactus pentlandii (S. D.) Backb. (J. Říha, p. 133) - T. pentlandii occurs at high altitudes (3000-4000 m a.s.l.) in a vast distribution area stretching from S. Peru through Bolivia to the borderline of Chile. The species shows an enormous variation that led to description of many, usually superfluous, taxa. As a highland plant it requires much sunlight and fresh air. In the European conditions, it does not, however, tolerate temperatures below zero. The best temperature for its wintering is 0-10 °C. The plants are not apt for cultivation outdoors as a winter-hard cactus.

Mexico bonito (L. Horáček and R. Chalupský, p. 135) - The last part of the series on the trip to Mexico.

Our visit to remarkable collections: L. Mitiska, Dvůr Králové nad Labem (J. Gratias, p. 138)

Bookreview: W. Reppenhagen, Die Gattung Mammillaria, Band 1. 1991.

Euphorbia primulifolia Bak. (J. Říha, p. 144) - Small Euphorbia originating from Madaga- scar is introduced. The seedlings soon form an underground caudex 10-15 cm long and 7 cm wide. The above ground part of the plant is only a few centimetres high. The flowers appear in spring, and then repeatedly several times up to the autumn. These are tropical plants requiring higher temperatures in cultivation. The safe temperature minimum for their cultivation is 12 °C.

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Kaktusy Magazine is in the Czech language with the Summary in English and Deutsch.

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